Δευτέρα, 23 Απριλίου 2018

Extinction of languages- Erosion of cultures

Extinction of languages-Erosion of cultures
The extinction of languages
What does the world lose when a lg dies

1) Fill in with one missing word
According 1).......... the UNESCO’s Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing and to Ethnologue, 96% of the global population speaks a mere 4% of all of the recorded languages of the world.
2) .......... the estimated 6, 700 languages currently spoken 3)...................... the world, a little over 2,500 have been classified 4)............ endangered and half are predicted to become extinct by the end of this century. 
As UNESCO eloquently expressed, “Languages are humankind’s principle tools 5).............. interacting and for expressing ideas, emotions, knowledge, memories and values. Languages are also primary vehicles of cultural expressions and intangible cultural heritage, essential 6)............ the identity of individuals and groups. Safeguarding endangered language is thus a crucial task in maintaining cultural diversity worldwide.”
This website 7)............ to explore the current situation of language endangerment and extinction, to investigate its different causes and courses, and lastly to discuss for 8)............... reasons and in which ways we 9)..................prevent it.

2) Fill in with a derivative word
A language will perish if all who speak it are dead. Thus, anything or anyone that directly threatens the physical ............................... (safe) of a community threatens the ................................ (survive) of the language they speak. Catastrophic natural disasters can wipe out small communities in isolated areas, leading to a sudden and .............................. (reverse) extinction of their language.
In other cases, ......................................... (favorable) climatic conditions can result not only in widespread death, but in changing demographic patterns which in turn impact the status of indigenous languages. 
The most predominant threat to the physical safety of populations in modern times has been ........................ (import) disease. Since the Age of Exploration, foreign diseases have annihilated entire indigenous communities. By the time of exploration, diseases such as tuberculosis and smallpox had been common in Europe for centuries, meaning that individuals had built antibodies and ............................ (immune). When they travelled to foreign lands, they took the diseases with them, infecting indigenous peoples. 
Human induced environmental degradation, particularly desertification and .........................(forest), as well as economic exploitation for resources has forced unplanned and unpredictable migration to take place. In new, often suburban settings, communities struggle to maintain their ................................ (culture) and linguistic traditions. 
Civil strife, conflicts at an international scale and long-term ethnic or religious enmities also have an effect on the status of languages. For example, several Pacific island languages became endangered in the years following the invasions and battles during the Second World War. 
3) Put the right word in the right place (force, dominantlocationassimilation, familiarculprits, bilingualism, inferiority) 
Population pressures, globalization and the spread of industrialization are the most accredited 1............................... of “language murder”. Global economic patterns often 2...................... small, unindustrialized communities to assimilate to a different culture. This may occur when individuals physically move to another geographic 3........................... where their culture is no longer the prevalent one, or when they allow or encourage a different cultural conduct to prevail in the place of theirs. This phenomenon, know as cultural 4....................................., consists of several stages. During the first, the speakers of the vulnerable language face immense pressure to speak in the 5.................................. language. This pressure comes in an array of  forms, from peer pressure to government laws. The second stage is characterized by a developing 6......................................- people begin to gain proficiency in the new language, but continue to speak in their native tongue. During the last stage, younger generations find themselves being more 7............................. with the dominant language, and less connected to their mother tongue. The most concerning aspect of the final stage are the increasing feelings, particularly amongst children, of shame and 8.................................. about the native language of their parents and grandparents.

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